For more reading on the Syrian conflict, civil wars, insurgencies, and rebel fragmentation, see the references listed below from POMEPS Studies 5 “The Politics of Syria’s War.”


Ahram, Ariel. 2011. Proxy Warriors: The Rise and Fall of State-Sponsored Militias. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Aydin, Aysegul and Patrick M. Regan. 2012. “Networks of third-party interveners and civil wars.” European Journal of International Relations 18: 573-597.

Balcells, Laia. 2010. Rivalry and Revenge: The Politics of Violence in Civil War. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Political Science, Yale University.

Balcells, Laia. 2011. “Continuation of Politics by Two Means: Direct and Indirect Violence in Civil Wars.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 55, no.3: 397-422.

Balcells, Laia, and Stathis N. Kalyvas. 2012. “Technologies of Rebellion and Civil War Outcomes.” CEACS Juan March Working Paper 2012/273.

Balch-Lindsay, Dylan Andrew Enterline, and Kyle Joyce. 2008. “Third-Party Intervention and the Civil War Process,” Journal of Peace Research 45(3): 345-363.

Beath, Andrew, Fotini Christia, and Ruben Enikolopov. 2013. “Winning Hearts and Minds through Development Aid: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Afghanistan,” MIT Working Paper.

Berman, Eli, Jacob Shapiro, and Joseph Felter. 2011. “Can Hearts and Minds Be Bought? The Economics of Counterinsurgency in Iraq,” Journal of Political Economy 119(4).

Biddle, Stephen, Jeffrey Friedman, and Jacob Shapiro. 2012. “Testing the Surge: Why Did Violence Decline in Iraq in 2007?” International Security 37(1): 7-40.

Buhaug, Halvard, Scott Gates, and Paivi Lujala. 2009. “Geography, Rebel Capability, and the Duration of Civil Conflict,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 53 (4): 544-569.

Call, Charles and Susan E. Cook, “On Democratization and Peacebuilding,” Global Governance 9 (2003): 233–34.

Cedarman, Lars-Erik, Andreas Wimmer, and Brian Min. 2010. “Why do Ethnic Groups Rebel?” New Data and Analysis,” World Politics 62: 87-119

Chenoweth, Erica and Maria Stephan. 2012. Why Non-Violence Works.

Christia, Fotini. 2008. “Following the Money: Muslim versus Muslim in Bosnia’s Civil War,” Comparative Politics 40(4): 461-480.

Christia, Fotini. 2012. Alliance Formation in Civil Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Collier, Paul, et al., 2003. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Cunningham, David E. 2006. “Veto Players and Civil War Duration.” American Journal of Political Science 50(4): 875–92.

Cunningham, David E. 2011. Barriers to Peace in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press

Cunningham, David E. 2010. Blocking resolution: How external states can prolong civil wars. Journal of Peace Research, 47(2), 115-127

Cunningham, David E. and Douglas Lemke. 2013. “Combining Civil and Interstate Wars.” International Organization 67, no.3: 609-27.

Cedarman, Lars-Erik, Andreas Wimmer, and Brian Min, “Why do Ethnic Groups Rebel?: New Data and Analysis,” World Politics 62 (2010): 87-119.

Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher. 2012. “Divide and Conquer or Divide and Concede: How Do States Respond to Internally Divided Separatists?” American Political Science Review 105(2): 275–97.

Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher. 2013. “Actor Fragmentation and Civil War Bargaining: How Internal Divisions Generate Civil Conflict” American Journal of Political Science 57(3): 659-672.

Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher, Kristin M. Bakke and Lee Seymour. 2012. “Shirts Today, Skins Tomorrow: The Effects of Fragmentation on Conflict Processes in Self-Determination Disputes.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 56(1): 67-93.

Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher. 2011. “Divide and Conquer or Divide and Concede: How Do States Respond to Internally Divided Separatists?” American Political Science Review 105(2): 275-297.

Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher. Inside the Politics of Self-determination. Forthcoming at Oxford University Press.

Downes, Alexander B. 2004. “The problem with negotiated settlements to ethnic wars.” Security Studies 13, no.4: 230-297.

Downes, Alexander B. 2008. Targeting Civilians in War. Cornell University Press.

Doyle, Michael and Nicholas Sambanis. 2000. “International Peacebuilding: A Theoretical and Quantitative Analysis,” American Political Science Review 94(4): 779-801.

Fearon, James D. 1994. “Ethnic War as a Commitment Problem”. Presented at the 1994 Annual Meetings of the American Political Science Association, 2-5 September, New York.

Fearon, James D. 1998. “Commitment Problems and the Spread of Ethnic Conflict” in The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict, ed. David A. Lake and Donald Rothchild. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press pp. 107–26.

Fearon, James D. 2004. “Why Do Some Civil Wars Last So Much Longer Than Others?” Journal of Peace Research 41(3):275–301.

Fearon, James D. 2013. “Fighting rather than Bargaining.” Unpublished paper.

Fearon, James D. and David D. Laitin. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97(1):75–90.

Fearon, James D. and David D. Laitin. 2007. “Civil War Termination.” Unpublished paper, Stanford University.

Fearon, James D. and David Laitin. 2011. “Sons of the Soil, Migrants, and Civil War,” World Development 39 (2): 199-211.

Fish, M. Steven and Matthew Kroenig, 2006. “Diversity, Conflict and Democracy: Some Evidence from Eurasia and East Europe,” Democratization 13: 828–42;

Fortna, Virginia Page. 2008. Does Peacekeeping Work?:  Shaping Belligerents’ Choices After Civil War. Princeton:  Princeton University Press.

Fortna, Virginia Page and Reyko Huang. 2012. “Democratization after Civil War: A Brush-Clearing Exercise,” International Studies Quarterly 56: 801–808.

Gilligan, Michael J. and Ernest J. Sergenti. 2008. “Do UN Interventions Cause Peace? Using Matching to Improve Causal Inference,” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 3(2): 89-122.

Gleditsch, Kristian S. 2007. “Transnational Dimensions of Civil War.”  Journal of Peace Research 44: 293-309.

Haddad, Bassam. “The Syrian Regime’s Business Backbone.” Middle East Report 262 (2012): 26-27.

Haddad, Bassam. “Syria’s Stalemate: The Limits of Regime Resilience.” Middle East Policy 19, no.1 (2012): 85-95.

Hegghammer, Thomas. “The Rise of Muslim Foreign Fighters.” 2010/11. International Security 35, no.3: 53-94.

Heydemann, Steven. “Upgrading Authoritarianism in the Arab World,” Saban Center for Middle East Policy, Analysis Paper No. 14, Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., 2007: 23.

Heydemann, Steven. 1999. Authoritarianism in Syria: Institutions and Social Conflict, 1946-1970. Cornell University Press.

Heydemann, Steven and Reinoud Leenders, eds., 2013. Middle East Authoritarianisms: Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Heydemann, Steven and Reinoud Leenders, “Authoritarian Learning and Authoritarian Resilience: Regime Responses to the ‘Arab Awakening,’”Globalizations 8 (October 2011): 647–53.

Hinnebusch, Raymond. “Syria: From ‘Authoritarian Upgrading’ to Revolution?”  International Affairs 88, no. 1 (2012): 95-113.

Hokayem, Emile. 2013. Syria’s War and the Fracturing of the Levant.

Horowitz, Donald. 2000. Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley: University of California Press)

Humphreys, Macartan and Jeremy Weinstein. 2006. “Handling and Manhandling Civilians in Civil War,” American Political Science Review 100(3): 429-447.

International Crisis Group. 2011. “Popular Protest In North Africa And The Middle East (VI): The Syrian People’s Slow Motion Revolution.” Middle East/North Africa Report # 108 – 6 July 2011.

Ismail, Salwa. “The Syrian Uprising: Imagining and Performing the Nation.” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 11: 3 (2011): 538-549.

Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press

Kalyvas, Stathis N. and Matthew Adam Kocher. 2007. “Ethnic Cleavages and Irregular War: Iraq and Vietnam,” Politics and Society 35(2): 183-223.

Kalyvas, Stathis N. and Laia Balcells. 2010. “International System and Technologies of Rebellion: How the End of the Cold War Shaped Internal Conflict,” American Political Science Review 104(3): 415-429.

Kaufmann, Chaim. 1996. “Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars,” International Security 20(4): 136-175.

Kreutz, Joakim. 2010. “How and When Armed Conflicts End: Introducing the UCDP Conflict Termination Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research, 47(2): 243-250.

Kocher, Matthew Adam Thomas Pepinsky, and Stathis N. Kalyvas. 2011. “Aerial Bombing and Counterinsurgency in the Vietnam War,” American Journal of Political Science 55(2): 1-18.

Kydd, Andrew and Barbara Walter. 2002. “Sabotaging the Peace: The Politics of Extremist Violence,” International Organization 56, no.2: 263-296.

Landis, Joshua. “Why the Assad Regime Is Likely to Survive to 2013.” 2012. Middle East Policy 19: 72-84.

Leenders, Reinoud. 2012. “Collective action and mobilization in Dar’a: An anatomy of the onset of Syria’s popular upsiring.” Mobilization 17, no.4: 419-434

Leenders, Reinoud and Steven Heydemann. 2012. “Popular Mobilization in Syria: Opportunity and Threat, and the Social Networks of the Early Risers.” Mediterranean Politics 17: 139–59.

Levitsky, Steven and Lucan A. Way. 2005. “International Linkage and Democratization,” Journal of Democracy 16: 20–34.

Lyall, Jason. 2009. “Does Indiscriminate Violence Incite Insurgent Attacks? Evidence from Chechnya.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 53(3): 331-362.

Lyall, Jason. 2010. “Are Co-Ethnics More Effective Counter-Insurgents? Evidence from the Second Chechen War,” American Political Science Review 104(1): 1-20.

Mampilly, Zachariah. 2011a. Rebel Rulers: Insurgent Governance and Civilian Life during War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Mampilly, Zachariah. 2011b. “Rebels with a Cause: The History of Rebel Governance, From the U.S. Civil War to Libya.” Foreign Affairs.

Mueller, John. 2000. “The Banality of ‘Ethnic War’,” International Security 25, no.1: 42-70.

Mylonas, Harris. 2012. The Politics of Nation-Building: Making Co-Nationals, Refugees, and Minorities. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Pearlman, Wendy, 2011. Violence, Nonviolence and the Palestinian National Movement. Cambridge University Press.

Pearlman, Wendy and Kathleen G. Cunningham. 2012. “Nonstate actors, fragmentation, and conflict processes” Special Journal Issue. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 56, 1

Pearlman, Wendy. 2012. “Precluding Nonviolence, Propelling Violence: The Effect of Internal Fragmentation on Movement Behavior.” Studies in Comparative International Development, 47, no. 1: 23-46.

Peic, Goran and Dan Reiter. 2011. “Foreign-Imposed Regime Change, State Power, and Civil War Onset, 1920-2004,” British Journal of Political Science 41: 453-475.

Petersen, Roger. 2001. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press).

Petersen, Roger. 2002. Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Powell, Robert. 2004. “The Inefficient Use of Power: Costly Conflict with Complete Information.” American Political Science Review 98(2):231–242.

Pierskalla, J. and F. Hollenbach (2013). “Technology and Collective Action: The Effect of Cell Phone Coverage on Political Violence in Africa,” American Political Science Review 107 (2).

Posen, Barry. 1993. “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict,” Survival 35 (1): 27-47.

Salehyan, Idean. 2009. Rebels Without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World Politics. Cornell University Press.

Salehyan, Idean. 2010. “The Delegation of War to Rebel Organizations.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 54, no.3: 493-515.

Salehyan, Idean, Kristian S. Gleditsch and David E. Cunningham. 2011. “Explaining External Support for Insurgencies.” International Organization 64, no.4: 709-744.

Sambanis, Nicholas. 2000. “Partition as a Solution to Ethnic War: An Empirical Critique of the Theoretical Literature.” World Politics 52(4): 437-483.

Sambanis, Nicholas. 2004. “What is a Civil War? Conceptual and Empirical Complexities of an Operational Definition.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48 (6): 814-858.

Sambanis, Nicholas and Jonah Schulhofer-Wohl. 2009. “What’s in a Line? Is Partition a Solution to Civil War?” International Security 34 (2): 82-118.

Schulhofer-Wohl, Jonah and Nicholas Sambanis. 2009. “What’s in a Line? Is Partition a Solution to Civil War?” International Security 34, no.2: 82-118.

Staniland, Paul. 2012. “Organizing Insurgency: Networks, Resources, and Rebellion in South Asia,” International Security 37(1): 142-177.

Staniland, Paul. 2012. “States, Insurgents, and Wartime Political Orders.” Perspectives on Politics 10, No. 2: 243-264.

Staniland, Paul. 2014. Networks of Rebellion: Explaining Insurgent Cohesion and Collapse. Forthcoming, Cornell University Press

Stedman, Stephen. 1997. “Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes,” International Security 22 no. 2: 5-53.

Wantchekon, Leonard. 2004. “The Paradox of ‘Warlord’ Democracy: A Theoretical Investigation,” American Political Science Review 98.

Walter, Barbara F. 1997. “The Critical Barrier to Civil War Settlement,” International Organization 51, no.3: 335-364.

Walter, Barbara F. 2002. Committing to Peace:  The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars,  Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Walter, Barbara F. 2011. “Conflict Relapse and the Sustainability of Postconflict Peace,” World Development Report 2011 Background Paper (Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Wedeen, Lisa. 1999. Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Weinstein, Jeremy. 2007. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge University Press.

Wood, Elisabeth J. 2008. “The Social Processes of Civil War: The Wartime Transformation of Social Networks.” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 539-61.




The Political Science of Syria’s War Bibliography

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